|Addressing the public health problem of bullying in middle schools via a brief online e-health avatar-cartoon video intervention designed for mother-child dyads|
Felicia Asha Gokool-Sheikh
Uploaded by: Pocket Masters
Pockets: 2015 (October) Teachers College Columbia University Ed.D. Dissertations, Gottesman Libraries Archive, Historical Dissertations
Tags: avatar cartoon-video, Bullying, E-health, Intervention, Middle Schools, Self-efficacy
Description/Abstract: The problem this study addressed was the high prevalence of bullying among children in middle school, and the need for interventions that can transform students into upstanders, as opposed to being bystanders. The study sought to determine for dyads (n = 49) of mothers and their middle school child (67.3% girls, 32.7% boys) the following: (1) how each rated an original e-health Bullying Cartoon avatar video that covered the topic of how to be an upstander; (2) whether exposure to the cartoon had a positive impact on the child (i.e., any change from pre-video to post-video for stage of change for being an upstander [i.e., precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance] and for self-efficacy for being an upstander); and, (3) whether the mother and child each recommended the cartoon to other dyads. The children's rating of the cartoon showed that 36.7% (n = 18) found the cartoon to be "very good", and 18.4% (n = 9) found the cartoon to be "excellent". Also, 38.8% (n = 19) of the mothers rated the cartoon as "very good", and 20.4% (n = 10) rated it as "excellent". Before watching the cartoon, most of the children (59.2%, n = 29) had not heard of the word "upstander" before. After watching the avatar cartoon, and when comparing pre-video to post-video scores, there was no significant difference in the children's stage of change; however, for self-efficacy there was a significant change (pre-video mean of 2.24, SD = 1.146; post-video mean of 3.22, SD = 0.823; t = -5.720, df =48, p =.000). The Bullying Cartoon avatar video served as a brief online e-health intervention that positively impacted self-efficacy for being an upstander. Also, 83.7% (n = 41) of the children would recommend the cartoon to other mothers and their children, as would 79.6% (n = 39) of the mothers---thereby diffusing the innovation of e-health. Qualitative data was rich in identifying emergent themes for either recommending or not recommending the video to other mother-child dyads. Implications of the study findings and recommendations for future research are discussed, along with study limitations.