|Self-actualization, mood, and personality adjustment in married women|
Jean Marian Harder
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Pockets: Gottesman Libraries Archive, Historical Dissertations
Tags: Married women, PERSONALITY, Self-actualization (Psychology
SELF-ACTUALIZATION, MOOD, AND PERSONALITY ADJUSTMENT IN MARRIED WOMEN
Jean M. Harder
Self-actualization as a dimension of personality is usually associated with the fully functioning and well-adjusted personality. Despite many interesting articles and books on the characteristics of the self-actualizing or fully functioning person, research designed to validate or illuminate these theoretical formulations has been very sparse.
Two questions generated by the theoretical literature on self-actualization were explored:
1. What factors result from a factor analysis of certain measures of personality and self-actualization?
2. What is the relationship between mood and the factors found?
The sample of 62 married women was drawn from a large suburban town. Nine presumably relevant measures of self-actualization were employed: JudgesÆ Ratings; Time Competence and Inner Directedness, subscales of the Personal Orientation Inventory; two self-reports of Happiness and Fullness of Life; and a self-report of the subjectsÆ Satisfaction with Their Role. Measures of adjustment included the Super Neuroticism Scale and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale used as a control measure. Five moods were studied over a 21-day period by means of the Wessman-Ricks Personal Feelings Scales. The five moods were: Elation vs Depression, Fullness vs Emptiness of Life, Companionship vs Being Isolated, Tranquility vs Anxiety, and Energy vs Fatigue.
Using the nine measures of personality, a principal-components analysis with Varimax rotation solution extracted three factors: Adjustment, Openness and Fullness of Life.
The bi-polar factor, Adjustment, was so named because of the strong positive correlation coefficients for Time Competence and Inner Directedness, and the strong negative correlation coefficients for the Super Neuroticism Scale and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale.
The bi-polar factor, Openness, had large negative correlation coefficients for the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Satisfaction with Role together with positive correlation coefficients for Inner Directedness, the Super Neuroticism Scale, and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale.
The Fullness of Life factor had strong positive correlation coefficients for Fullness of Life, Happiness and JudgesÆ Ratings.
In general, the present sample of women showed mood levels above the mid-point of the five scales used. The subjects rated themselves highest on Companionship vs Being Isolated.
All mood levels of the five moods had significant positive correlations with Adjustment factor scores. This suggests that women with high Adjustment factor scores also tend to have high Peak, Average and Trough mood level scores. There is some evidence that women with high Adjustment factor scores tend to have low Day-to-Day variability in mood levels.
There was no evidence of any relationship between mood and Openness.
There was evidence of a positive relationship between Fullness of Life factor and mood level but the correlations were small.
The findings of the present study appear to be consistent with some of the characteristics (e.g., openness, adjustment and fullness of life) which theorists have tended to associate with self-actualizing or fully functioning persons. There is also a positive relationship between Adjustment and mood level scores.
Implications of these findings were discussed, limitations of the research noted, and directions for further research on self-actualization were suggested.