|Speech in teacher education|
Burton Holmes Byers
Uploaded by: Pocket Masters
Pockets: Gottesman Libraries Archive, Historical Dissertations
Tags: Speech, Study and teaching (Higher), teachers, Training of
Speech is used by men everywhere to communicate ideas and feelings. Teachers and school administrators, whose professional competence depends on their ability to communicate ideas and feelings, use speech a great deal. A major part of the work of the classroom teacher is carried on by means of speaking and by means of listening to and evaluating the speaking of pupils. Yet graduates of teachers colleges, organized for the specific purpose of educating young men and women to teach effectively, do not use speech well. The reason for this lack is probably the failure of the colleges to develop within the teacher education curriculum a program emphasizing directly the development of speech competencies.
The purpose of this study is to identify the competencies needed by teachers in order to use speaking-listening activities effectively in the teaching-learning process, to suggest experiences which would help students to develop these competencies, and to suggest ways of providing these experiences within the pre-service curriculum for teachers. This study is not intended to deal with the problems of preparing students to be specialists in speech or in the teaching of speech, but only with the problem of devising a program which will serve the needs of all students who are preparing to teach.
It is assumed that this stated purpose can be accomplished in a single study. The statement of the purpose must therefore be interpreted broadly. ˘To identify the speaking-listening competencies needed by teachers in order to use speaking-listening activities effectively in the teaching-learning process÷ could be narrowly interpreted to mean a description in detail of all possible competencies needed by a teacher who meets pupils and talks with them, that is, by all teachers. If the purpose of the study is narrowly interpreted in this way, it might be assumed that the writer was attempting, in a single study, to provide a complete education. ˘To suggest experiences which would help students to develop these competencies÷ likewise might be narrowly interpreted to mean that the writer was attempting to outline in detail all of the day-to-day classroom activities of a pre-service college course for teachers. ˘To suggest ways of providing these experiences within the pre-service curriculum for teachers÷ might be narrowly interpreted as meaning that the writer was attempting to specify in detail workable curricula for all of the colleges which prepare teachers.
It is hoped that the reader will interpret the purpose broadly, and regard this as a pilot study of an extremely important and complex problem. It is hoped that it will suggest a general pattern for a service program of speech for all prospective teachers. It is hoped that it will direct attention to the problems of providing such a program, for in many colleges the services of speech personnel are not made readily available to students who are not intending to become teachers of speech. It is hoped that the study will direct attention to specific areas which might well be made the subjects of research and development in the field of speech education.
Clarification of Terms
Speech, as that term is used in this study, is a human accomplishment by means of which men are able to carry on purposeful communication and interaction. Speech consists of audible and visible symbols, formulated by the speaker in response to a situation. The observable speech symbols are an integral part of an infinitely complex field. Thought itself is a symbolic process, and it is difficult to divorce the thought from its expression in terms of spoken symbols. Just as the symbols used in formulating and expressing the thought bear on the clarity of the thought itself, so the nature of the thought and of the situation in which the thought is advanced bear on the symbols used in its formulation and expression. Speech is personal. It is an expression of an individual personality, and is thus related to the whole being of the speaker, as well as to